Volume 12 Number 25
                       Produced: Wed Mar 23 19:00:54 1994

Subjects Discussed In This Issue: 

Pesach 5754
         [Joseph Greenberg]


From: Joseph Greenberg <72600.225@...>
Date: 17 Mar 94 21:43:24 EST
Subject: Pesach 5754

The following was written by Rabbi Reuven Drucker, the Rabbi of the
Young Israel of Greenfield, in Oak Park, Michigan. I though it would be
useful to members of mj. Rabbi Drucker has accepted the position of
Rabbi at the Agudath Israel in Edison, NJ and will be starting his new
position some time in June, 1994.
     Rabbi Drucker has agreed to answer question on this material,
although initially it will be through an intermediary (me, via email).
     All questions should be sent, via email, to
<72600.225@...> (Joseph Greenberg, although the name isn't
necessary). I will forward them to Rabbi Drucker, and return answers as
soon as possible.

                      5754: When erev Pesach falls on Shabbos

Note: The times given in the following guide reflect the stringent
opinion (Magen Avraham) / lenient opinion (Gra) used in calculating
these z'manin, and apply for Detroit, Michigan.

     When erev Pesach falls on a week day, it is undoubtedly the busiest
day of the year, since all the preparations needed for Yom Tov are
permitted. However, when erev Pesach falls on Shabbos as it does this
year, the laws of Shabbos restrict many of these preparations and
therefore the standard routine of erev Pesach needs to be modified. In
addition, the restrictions of Pesach have a reciprocal effect on the
routine of this Shabbos, since the restrictions of eating chametz apply
as early as Shabbos morning. Furthermore, the constraints that Shabbos
places on chametz disposal also affect the Shabbos menu as well as the
clean-up after the meals.

     The objective of this guide is to clarify many of the unusual
circumstances that arise as a result of this rare and unique Shabbos,
known in halacha as "Erev Pesach she'chal l'hiyos b'Shabbos.

1. 7 Nisan / Shabbos, March 19, 1994
*    Shabbos HaGadol
     It is a time-hallowed tradition for the Rav to deliver a derosha on
Shabbos HaGadol in which he reviews the essential halachos of Pesach(1).
In order to allow enough time to implement the dinim discussed, it has
become the custom in most communities to designate this Shabbos as
Shabbos HaGadol(2), even though it is not the Shabbos immediately
preceding Pesach. In many communities the Haftorah for Shabbos HaGadol
is recited on this Shabbos as well(3). The Hagadah, however, is recited
next Shabbos (see further, section 5, #11).

2. 12 Nisan / Thursday Morning, March 24, 1994
*    Ta'anis bechorim-Fast of the Firstborn begins 5:16 a.m. (Detroit)
     Typically this fast falls on erev Pesach. However, in a year which
would require fasting on Shabbos, the fast is changed to the Thursday
before. Fasting on erev Shabbos is avoided when possible, because it
tends to create distress by the time Shabbos arrives. (When Pesach falls
on Shabbos, the fast would fall on Friday, however.) Most shuls make a
siyum on Thursday morning after davening in order to exempt the
participants from the fast. One who does fast is not permitted to eat a
full meal until after bedikas chametz(5).

3. 13 Nisan / Thursday Evening, March 24, 1994
*    Bedikas chametz begins 7:31 p.m. (Detroit)
     Since chazal established that the search for chametz be performed
with a lamp, the bedikah this year is conducted on Thursday evening,
instead of the night before the Seder evening.
     1. A regular bedikah is performed preceded by the beracha, "al
bi'ur chametz."(6)
     2. All chametz should be removed except for that which will be
eaten on Friday and Shabbos(7). The remaining chametz should be stored
carefully, lest it get spread around and necessitate another bedikah.
     3. The text of bitul chametz [nullification of chametz] (Kol
chamira ...)  should be recited after the bedikah Thursday evening (8)
as well as Shabbos morning.
     4. If one forgot to perform the bedikah this evening, he should
perform the search on Friday morning without a beracha.

4. 13 Nisan / Friday Morning, March 25, 1994
*    Shacharis
     Since this day is not erev Pesach. mizmor l'sodah and lamnatzeyach are
included in davening.
*    Mechiras chametz
     The Rav will arrange for the sale of chametz before 11:25 a.m. /
11:37 a.m.  (Detroit).
     Although this year the sale of chametz is permissible all day erev
Shabbos (since unlike a typical erev Pesach, there is no prohibition of
benefitting from chametz on this day), we nevertheless treat the sale of
chametz this year as we would in a regular year and perform the sale
earlier in the day so as not to create confusion in following years.
     If one failed to sell his chametz by the above time. it may still
be sold; a Rav should be consulted.
     The sale of chametz will be effective as of Friday for all chametz
that will ultimately be in the seller's possession by 10:11 a.m. / 10:35
a.m. Shabbos morning (Detroit)(9). Chametz left over on Shabbos morning
should be placed in the designated areas where one stores the chametz
sold to the non Jew.  * Bi'ur chametz
     Burn chametz between 10:11 a.m. / 10:35 a.m. and 11:25 a.m. / 11:37
a.m.  (Detroit)
     1. The burning of the chametz should preferably take place at the
beginning of the fifth hour (10:11 a.m. / 10:35 a.m. (Detroit), but if
necessary. since Friday is not erev Pesach, it may be done until the
commencement of Shabbos.
     2. Unlike other years, the text of bitul chametz need not be
recited after the burning, since chametz may be kept for future meals on
Friday and Shabbos morning. After the morning meal on Shabbos, bitul
chometz must be made (10).
     3. Those who are not keeping any chametz for later use (see
further--The Egg Matzah Option) may make bitul chametz after the bi'ur,
but should preferably repeat the bitul on Shabbos morning. 

 * Chametz disposal-(scanner's note- part of this discussion may change
depending on the date of your trash pick-up.  Here it assumes a Friday
afternoon pick-up).
     Trash is muktzeh on Shabbos, so all trash containing chametz should
be placed at the curb before Shabbos and made hefker [ownerless]. In
addition, trash cans should not be used if the city trash pick-up will
occur after Shabbos morning, because the trash can. which one does not
make hefker, is considered a kli and will therefore "reacquire" the
chometz inside. Therefore, plastic bags should be used and both the bags
and chametz should be declared hefker.
     Any unwanted chametz remaining after the Shabbos meals (e.g., bread
crumbs or pieces) should be disposed of by flushing in the commode(11).

* Melacha on erev Yom Tov
     Erev Pesach has a festive nature, because in the times of the Bais
HaMikdash, each person offered (either collectively or individually) a
korban Pesach [Passover offering]. Therefore, activity which is not
permitted on Chol HaMoed (e.g.. cutting grass) may not be done on erev
Pesach after chatzos [midday]. However, if the Bais HaMikdash were
operating this year, the korban Pesach would be brought on Shabbos, not
Friday.  and thus melacha is permitted all day on Friday this year(12).
For example, one may sew garments as well as cut hair and nails after
* Kashering utensils
     One may kasher chametz utensils for Pesach use all day Friday,
although on a regular erev Pesach kashering by hagalah (boiling water)
is permitted only until the fifth hour. Kashering may not be done on
Shabbos, however.  
 * Preparing the kitchen for Pesach use
     All coverings for chametz counters, tables, high chairs, etc.
should be cut before Shabbos, and any covering which needs to be taped
in place should be taped before Shabbos.
 *    Preparations for the Seder
     Ideally, one should set the Yom Tov table for the Seder on Friday
in an area which will not be needed for Shabbos.  Additionally, all the
Seder preparations should be finished on Friday so that the Seder may be
started immediately upon returning from shul motza'ei Shabbos. The Seder
table, chairs, place settings, and foods may not be prepared or arranged
on Shabbos.

     Those using lettuce for maror should examine all the leaves before
Shabbos in order to insure that they are insect-free. One should not
soak the lettuce used for maror or the horseradish root in water for 24
hours, because soaking is halachically considered cooking, thus
disqualifying the vegetable for maror. Therefore, these items should not
be kept in water over Shabbos(13).
     Those who use ground horseradish for maror should grind it Friday
and keep it covered and refrigerated over Shabbos. The Vilna Gaon,
however, required that the horseradish be ground upon returning from
shul motza'ei Shabbos and left exposed to the air until the time of
eating maror (14). If one follows this view, the maror should be grated
with a shinuy [in an unusual fashion]--i.e., allowing the grated pieces
to fall directly onto the counter top or table instead of a plate (15).

     If one failed to grind the charoses on Friday, they may be ground
on motza'ei Shabbos with a shinuy (see above).

                                    Salt water
     Salt water may be prepared on Yom Tov (16).

                                Z'roah and beitzeh
     The bone and egg should be roasted in advance of Shabbos. If one
forgot, then they may be roasted on motza'ei Shabbos. but should be
eaten on Sunday morning, and a second set should be roasted on Sunday
evening and eaten on Monday during the day (17).

5. 14 Nisan / Shabbos, March 26, 1994
     1. Shacharis should be scheduled earlier than usual to allow
everyone to return home and eat the Shabbos seudos with hamotzi before
the time that chametz is forbidden (10:09 a.m. / 10:93 a.m.-Detroit).
Shabbos morning davening should be completed in a b'kovodik -but
expedited- manner (18).
     2. Due to the prohibition of eating matzah on erev Pesach, one may
not eat baked goods containing matzah meal this Shabbos (19), such as
cookies or cake. However, foods containing matzah meal which are cooked
in liquid (such as kneidelach) may be eaten this Shabbos (20), prior to
3:44 p.m. (Detroit) (21).
     3. If chametz is used for homotzi, the crumbs or leftovers should
be flushed. or can be given as a gift to a non-Jew (22). In a city with
an eruv, the non-Jew may be directly told to remove the chametz from the
house. However, in a city without an eruv, he should not be so
instructed (23). If he carries the chametz out of the house on his own,
one need not protest (24).
     4. If one forgot to sell his chametz before Shabbos, he should seek
guidance from a Rav (25).
     5. Following the last chametz meal on Shabbos, one should recite
the bitul chametz before 11:23 a.m. / 11:35 a.m.  (Detroit), even if he
has no chametz left (26).
     6. If chametz was used for the Shabbos meals, the crumbs from the
tablecloth should be flushed and the room where the chametz was eaten
should be swept and the crumbs from the dustpan, broom, and one's
pockets should be flushed.  Sweeping on Shabbos may not be done on rugs,
carpets, or earthen floors.
     7. After eating chametz (but before 10:09 a.m. / 10:33 a.m.
(Detroit)), one should rinse his mouth to remove any residual chametz.
One may use a dry chametz toothbrush, a toothpick, precut dental floss.
or mouthwash. One may not use toothpaste or a wet toothbrush, however,
on Shabbos (27).
     8. Dentures or other removable dental apparatus should not be used
with hot chametz on this Shabbos (28).
     9. Chametz becomes muktzeh after 11:29 a.m. / 11:95 a.m. (Detroit)
and may, therefore. not be moved by a Jew. A non-Jew, however, may be
instructed to move it (29).
     10. The Shabbos morning meal should be divided in two in order to
fulfill the mitzvah of seudah shlishis with hamotzi (see further-The
Shabbos Seudos). However, since there are many opinions which require
that seudah shlishis be eaten on Shabbos afternoon, it is preferable
that one eat a seudah shlishis consisting of fish, meat, or fruit after
1:20 p.m. (Detroit). Egg matzah is not permitted after 10:09 a.m./ 10:33
a.m.  (Detroit). Kneidelach should not be eaten after 3:44 p.m.
     11. It is customary to recite the Hagadah on Shabbos afternoon from
"avadim ha'yinu" to l'chaper al kol avonoseinu" (30).
     12. Setting the table, arranging chairs, opening wine, and all
other preparations for the Seder may not be done on Shabbos.

6. 15 Nisan / Motza'ei Shabbos, March 26, 1994
     If any of the items needed for the Seder had not been prepared
before Shabbos. see Section 4. "Preparations for the Seder."

                                The Shabbos Seudos
                                   The Problem:
     When erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, we are placed in a conflict
between two competing halachos. On one hand. the laws of Shabbos require
that we eat at least two meals with bread and preferably three (31). On
the other hand. the laws of erev Pesach restrict us from eating bread
after the fourth hour of the day (10:09 a.m. / 10:33 a.m.-Detroit).
Eating matzah is also forbidden on erev Pesach to make it evident that
we are eating matzah at the Seder in order to fulfill the mitzvah (32).
In addition, the prohibitions of possessing chametz, even on erev Pesach
(33), motivate us to diminish, if not entirely avoid, the use of chametz
on this day. What is the best way, then, to handle the Shabbos seudos?
     There is an additional requirement to eat hot food on Shabbos (34).
Although the Shulhan Oruch (35) discusses how to handle chametz cooking
utensils that were used to cook and serve the Shabbos food for this
Shabbos, it would be most advisable to avoid this question entirely by
preparing all cooked foods Pesachdik, in kosher for Pesach utensils. By
so doing. the whole problem of Shabbos seudos is reduced to the choice
of bread to be used for hamotzi.

     Essentially there are two options for hamotzi: challah and egg

                                The challah option
     If challah is used, challah rolls are preferable because they
produce fewer crumbs and leftovers. Since challah rolls are chametz,
Pesach utensils may not be used at the table, even though all food was
cooked kosher for Pesach. In addition, one would want to have all the
chametz dishes away before Shabbos.  Therefore, if one uses this option,
it would be best to use disposable eating utensils (36) at the table as
well as a disposable tablecloth. After the meal, all crumbs should be
gathered from the tablecloth and dishes and flushed and the disposable
items deposited in the trash.

                               The egg matzah option
     Although one is not permitted to eat matzah on erev Pesach, this
restriction refers only to matzah which one could use to fulfill the
mitzvah of eating matzah on the Seder night. Egg matzah (known as matzah
ashirah) is disqualified for the mitzvah of eating matzah at the Seder
and may be eaten on erev Pesach (37).  According to the view of Rav
Moshe Feinstein zt"1 (38), one may use egg matzah for lechem mishneh on
Shabbos provided he eats a quantity sufficient to indicate that he has
"established his meal" with this matzah. (The quantity of egg matzah
needed to "establish one's meal" is equal to the amount of challah one
usually eats.) The brachah on egg matzah is normally borei minei
mezonos.  but when one "establishes his meal" on it, he is required to
wash al netilas yadayim and say bircas hamazon. Egg matzah should not be
eaten after the time that chametz is forbidden (10:09 a.m. / 10:33
a.m.-Detroit). Furthermore, if one uses egg matzah. it would still be
preferable to use disposable eating utensils, since it is Ashkenazic
custom not to eat egg matzah on Pesach under normal circumstances (39).

Three seudos with hamotzi
     Because it is preferable to have three meals on Shabbos with
hamotzi, both those using challah and those using egg matzah should
divide the Shabbos morning seudah into two. After returning from shul,
one should make kiddush, wash netilat yadayim, and make hamotzi. Then
the first course should be eaten and the bircas hamazon recited. One
should then engage in a different activity (such as going for a short
walk or learning).  Following this interruption, he should wash netilas
yadayim. make hamotzi, eat a sufficient quantity of bread or egg matzah,
clean up any crumbs, and flush the crumbs away. Then the remainder of
the seudah should be eaten and the final clean up of the floor and
cleaning one's mouth should take place before 10:09 a.m. / 10:33 a.m.
(Detroit). It goes without saying that if time does not permit one to
make hamotzi and eat before the proper time, the prohibition of eating
chametz takes precedence and one should refrain from making hamotzi.

                    In Conclusion
     Let it be our hope and prayer that the excitement generated by the
changes in our routine this erev Pesach be eclipsed in the very near
future by the spiritual exaltation of celebrating the Yom Tov of Pesach
in its entirety with the korban Pesach in Yerushalayim Ir HaKodesh in
close proximity to the Bayis Shlishi. Amen, ken yehi ratzon.

1. Mishneh Berurah 429 2.
2. Mishneh Berurah 429 2; cf. Oruch HoShulchan 430:5.
3. The Ezras Torah Luach indicates that the Shabbos HaGadol Haftorah should be
recited the following Shabbos, 14 Nisan.
4. Rama, Oruch Chaim 470:2.
5. A full meal in this context is defined as a meal with bread or with an
equivalent amount of mezonos substantial
enough to comprise a meal. See Mishneh Berurah 232 34 and Igros Moshe Orach
Chaim 3:32.
6. Mishneh Berurah 444 1.
7. Biur Halacha 444:1.
8. Mishneh Berurah 444 1.
9. See Chok Yisroel 13.
10. Mishneh Berurah 444 14.
11. Mishneh Berurah 444 21.
12. See Biur Halachah 468:1.
13. Mishneh Berurah 473 38.
14. Mishneh Berurah 473 36.
15. Mishneh Berurah 504 19.
16. Orach Chaim 321:2 and Mishneh Berurah ll.
17. Mishneh Berurah 473 32.
18. Mishneh Berurah 444 4.
19. Rama. Orach Chaim 471:2, Mishneh Berurah ibid. 19.
20. Mishneh Berurah ibid. 20.
21. Mishneh Berurah 444 8.
22. Mishneh Berurah 444 16.
23. Mishneh Berurah 444 18.
24. Mishneh Berurah 444 17,18.
25. See Mishneh Berurah 444 20.
26. Orach Chaim 444:6.
27. Igros Moshe. Orach Chaim 1:112.
28. Regarding kashering dental apparatus, see Maharsham 1:197, Melamed l'Hoyil
Orach Chaim 93. Sheivat HaLevi 148, Tzitz
Eliezer 9:25.
29. Mishneh Berurah 444 21.
30. Mishneh Berurah 430 2.
31. Mishneh Berurah 291 1.
32. Mishneh Berurah 471 11.
33. See Rashi, Bava Kama 29b.
34. Rama, Orach Chaim 257:8.
35. Rama, Orach Chaim 444:3.
36. Ezras Torah Luach.
37. Orach Chaim 471:2.
38. Igros Moshe, Orach Chaim 1:155.
39. Orach Chaim 472:4.

Copyright Rabbi Reuven Drucke


End of Volume 12 Issue 25